By Stephen Monsell, Jon Driver
Some of the most difficult difficulties dealing with cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience is to give an explanation for how psychological approaches are voluntarily managed, permitting the computational assets of the mind to be chosen flexibly and deployed to accomplish altering objectives. The eighteenth of the distinguished overseas symposia on realization and function inquisitive about this challenge, looking to banish or not less than deconstruct the "homunculus": that very easily clever yet opaque agent nonetheless lurking inside of many theories, below the guise of a significant government or supervisory attentional method assumed to direct strategies that aren't "automatic."The thirty-two contributions speak about facts from mental experiments with fit and brain-damaged topics, useful imaging, electrophysiology, and computational modeling. 4 sections specialise in particular varieties of keep an eye on: of visible realization, of perception-action coupling, of task-switching and dual-task functionality, and of multistep initiatives. the opposite 3 sections expand the interdisciplinary method, with chapters at the neural substrate of regulate, reports of keep an eye on problems, and computational simulations. The development completed in fractionating, localizing, and modeling keep an eye on services, and in realizing the interplay among stimulus-driven and voluntary regulate, takes study on regulate within the mind/brain to a brand new point of class.
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Additional info for Control of Cognitive Processes: Attention and Performance XVIII
327–350. London: Erlbaum. Newell, A. (1973). You can’t play twenty questions with nature and win. In W. A. ), Visual information processing, pp. 283–308. New York: Academic Press. Newell, A. (1980). Reasoning, problem-solving and decision processes. In R. ), Attention and Performance VIII, pp. 693–718. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Newell, A. (1990). Unified theories of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. , Rosenbloom, P. , and Laird, J. E. (1989). Symbolic architectures for cognition.
Moreover, a similar, massive rebound of RT interference from a prior task occurs also on the first trial of a run, with no explicit switch of task. Indeed, it turns out that even a brief interruption (as brief as two seconds) in a regular series of speeded response trials, and subsequent restart of the same task, is liable to trigger renewed task interference from earlier, competing S-R mappings, executed in response to the same stimuli. The performance costs on a task switch trial may thus include (or be a special case of) a much more general phenomenon of competing, reevoked S-R mappings (both “positive’’ and “negative’’ associative bindings), triggered by the onset of a new run of trials.
The critical difference between the two experiments, we suggest, was that in experiment 2, but not in experiment 1, subjects had also recently been required to perform the Stroop color-naming task, in response to the same set of bivalent stimuli. It seems clear that any account of these results will need to refer to the priming effects of previous, competing tasks—up to at least some 24 trials earlier—cued by the same, bivalent stimuli. Allport and Wylie Experiment 2 provided results that also seem inconsistent with Allport, Styles, and Hsieh’s interpretation (1994) of task priming (task set inertia): that is, simply as the persisting facilitation or suppression of competing processing pathways.